http://www.violence.de/prescott/letters/BREASTFEEDING_BONDING.pdf http://www.violence.de/prescott/letters/Gender.pdf http://www.kindredmedia.org/2013/08/how-breastfeeding-and-bonding-prevent-infant-mortality-and-adult-suicide/ http://whale.to/a/prescott_h.html
Thisz isz a very important & Hersz&Hisztoricall area of learning & retraszpective for Deareszt Family with Intergenerationall Transzmisszion & Inszight that isz of importance for the undersztanding of lifelong reall heallth. Allszo viszit our Page on Reall Heallth which allszo Highlightsz the Love&Lifelong Benefitsz of On Cue Breasztfeeding https://5050now.wordpress.com/elleventh-twelleventh-heavensz-on-earthsz-heallth-alltimate-cure-for-diszeasze-isz-the-new-millenniall-golden-rule/ & asz the Alltimate Entheaon of the ElleWeCoszaviorall Myszteryesz Revealled, the Elleixir of the Goddesszesz&Godsz, the Riszen Szoma of the Vedasz asz Foundation for Goddessz & Godlike poetree, & for Becoming a Culture of Eternall Love & Life & Apotheaoszisz for All. https://5050now.wordpress.com/elleweyouszaviorall-myszteryesz-revealled-locall-globall-universzall-democratheaouszall-of-familycommunityesz-ballance-divine-democracy-reunited/
American children are on average worse off than children in Western Europe and barely better off than their counterparts in the Baltic states and the former Yugoslavia, according to a recent report from United Nation’s Children’s Fund (UNICEF) on the welfare of children in developed countries.
The report, which compares kids in 29 Western countries, measures well-being across five metrics: material well-being, health and safety, behaviors and risks, housing and environment, as well as education. It ranks the United States in the bottom third on all five measures of well-being and particularly low on education and poverty.
Our goal should be to develop work-life policies that enable people to put their gender values into practice. So let’s stop arguing about the hard choices women make and help more women and men avoid such hard choices. To do that, we must stop seeing work-family policy as a women’s issue and start seeing it as a human rights issue that affects parents, children, partners, singles and elders. Feminists should certainly support this campaign. But they don’t need to own it.
Why Gender Equality Stalled
Stephanie Coontz is a professor of family history at Evergreen State College and the author of “A Strange Stirring: The Feminine Mystique and American Women at the Dawn of the 1960s.”
says nothing about other countries
is an industry group; all industries and chamber of commerce, no women’s or childrens groups
Less than eight in 10 new mothers breastfeed their babies from birth and only a fifth are still feeding their babies naturally after the recommended six months.
This is compared with almost all mothers in Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland. Breastfeeding rates are also higher in Austria, Italy and Spain while only France, Germany and Ireland have lower rates than England, the Department of Health admitted as it launched a £2million drive to improve figures in England.
this study actually got some media
Austrian Mom calls parental leave in the U.S. in the U.S. “a complete joke” compared to Europe
Austria offers 1-3 years paid depending on the amount of payment, Germany offers 3 years paid and up to 8 years unpaid, France and Nordic countries offer about 2 years, all allowing mothers to come back to work at full pay. Natural weaning is usually around 3 years. http://www.naturalchild.org/guest/norma_jane_bumgarner2.html http://www.kathydettwyler.org/detwean.html Only in the United States among advanced countries is leave totally unpaid in most states, and only between 6-12 weeks, totally inappropriate for bonding that protects healthy social, emotional, ethical and health development, and the best protection against all forms of illness and sociopathy in later life. Oprah has never done any show on family leave, and almost never has any international guests. Her only information about it http://www.oprah.com/money/The-Economics-of-Maternity-Leave totally leaves out any comparison with the best in Europe. Insist she cover this most important issue for America’s future.
Mentions Europe but no indication of length of family leave and developmental issues.
from 2005. Nothing about Europe or optimal leave. Simpy opposes minor changes to existing law.
Nation wavers on women’s work
By Jeane Anastas, PhD, LMSW
A core principle of social work is self-determination. People should be able to make their own choices about how best to live their lives as long as their choices do not harm others. However, most employment does not pay a “family wage,” that is, it does not provide earnings that would adequately support a household, with or without children.
While too much of our welfare spending may already benefit the middle class, why are we the only wealthy industrialized nation that does not offer paid parental leave?
It took until the Clinton administration to mandate family leave without risking the loss of one’s job, although the law does not mandate paid leave. While we may argue in the political arena about whether women’s (or anyone’s) unpaid work in the home, such as child-rearing, is to be valued, we seem less ready to change our policies and practices in ways that would benefit families of all kinds and at all income levels.
Social work has been concerned with both the paid employment and the “family work” of women since its beginnings. We must not get caught up in debates about who is a “good enough” mother — the one who can forgo employment for child-rearing, the one who is required to work to receive income benefits, or the one who sees no choice but to remain employed while rearing children.
The energy and the obfuscation generated by these debates only detract us from the real priority, to change our policies and practices in ways that equalize the potential of all people to earn a living and to care for one another in the ways that they think best.
For more information about the coalition, or to join our efforts, contact the National Partnership at 202-986-2600.
Gives no comparison with other countries; just defends and marginally expands status quo.
new report; findings not summarized to include best in Europe, but when you get into report, does have a chart. Seems misleading about paid leave in Germany and Austria, show much longer unpaid leave in many countries.
has section on international comparison, but hard to find.
labor benefits like vacation and overtime
McGill Institute for Health and Social Policy
Charles Meredith House, 1130 Pine Ave. W. Montreal, QC H3A 1A3
Email: email@example.com | Tel.: 514-398-1300
coopted mentons only california; does not indicate how different than Europe, mentions “best” us companies without a clue to how different than Europe.
talks about new jersey and california, no indication that this if far less than Europe, mentions Sweden only, not but Austria and Germany
under see model legislation links to only us info; no easy to find European info comparison, Does mention Sweden, but not Austria and Germany
take action focuses on existing legislation in Congress, not trying to increase women’s rep and world comparison
Scholars have offered a number of explanations for the steep decline: increased hospitalization and anestheticization of new mothers, medical promotion of infant formula, and the use of feeding schedules all likely discouraged women from breastfeeding [16-18]. In addition to these factors, it is also probable that there is a cultural explanation worth considering, as the growing connection between infant formula and consumption and modernity – two important values, which discourage natural practices like breastfeeding, present in much mid- to late-20th century U.S. media content, for example – also may have promoted infant formula usage [18-20].
American breastfeeding rates experienced their record low in 1971, when an estimated twenty-one percent of the population breastfed their infants at birth . By this time, however, breastfeeding campaigns had started to develop. With the onset of the late 1960s and 1970s, some feminists and other advocates began campaigning for mothers to breastfeed their infants . These campaigns, together with a changing ideology about infant feeding, may have helped to reverse existing trends. Over the next decade, in fact, breastfeeding rates rose dramatically. By 1984, nearly sixty percent of new mothers chose to breastfeed their children .
Contemporary studies suggest that the decision to breastfeed continues to be a complex issue, shaped by a multitude of factors, such as a mother’s prenatal care and the influence of her health professionals, her perception of the father’s views on breastfeeding, and her fear of lack of an adequate milk supply for the infant [17,21-23].
In the last thirty years, breastfeeding rates have generally increased, though there have been periods of slight decline. According to the 2001 Ross Laboratories Mothers Survey (RLMS), almost 70 percent of mother’s initiated breastfeeding, which marks the highest breastfeeding initiation rate ever recorded in the United States [14,24]. Mothers also have been nursing for longer periods of time. Results from the RLMS indicated that almost a third of mothers were breastfeeding their infants six months after birth [14,24].
In sum, in past decades in the United States breastfeeding rates have fluctuated significantly. From the slow decline of breastfeeding in the early 1900s, the sharp descent of rates in the 1950s, and the growth of breastfeeding rates since this time, many external factors have been proposed as explanations for this variation, including changes in hospital resources and popular culture trends. Consideration of these various factors raises the question: what specifically might have been the role of exposure to media content?
For those who view reality as being socially constructed, media outlets can shape and reinforce dominant ideologies and convey these messages to a mass audience through systems of representation . Under this assumption, it is likely that media messages about infant feeding influences how a mother decides to feed her infant.
breastfeeding in various counties
missing developed countries
history of breatfeeding in us
Examples of alternative feeding practices, such as the use of wet nurses or human milk substitutes, occur throughout recorded history (Fildes, 1986). The early twentieth century was marked, however, by an unprecedented increase in formula feeding, in part because the development of nutrition science coincided with a pervasive increase in the value placed on scientific products and processes (Rosenberg, 1976; Starr, 1982). As women asserted their rights for self-determination in public life, those who were wealthy enough and sufficiently in tune with contemporary values were adopting formula feeding for their infants.
A corresponding and consistent decline in breastfeeding is evident in data from U.S. fertility surveys (Hendershot, 1980, 1981; Hirschman and Hendershot, 1979), specific studies of infant feeding (Meyer, 1958, 1968), and market research surveys conducted by Ross Laboratories, 1 a manufacturer of infant formula (Martinez and Krieger, 1985; Martinez and Nalezienski, 1979, 1981; Martinez et al., 1981). Seventy-seven percent of the infants born between 1936 and 1940 were breastfed; the incidence declined during the subsequent decades to about 25% by 1970 (Hendershot, 1980, 1981; Hirschman and Hendershot, 1979; Meyer, 1958, 1968). Duration of breastfeeding declined as well, dropping from a mean of 4.2 months in the early 1930s to 2.2 months in the late 1950s.
The upward trend in breastfeeding after 1972 appeared to peak in 1982 at about 61% for initiation and 40% for the percentage of mothers breastfeeding 3 months or longer
However, American breast-feeding is at a low, something hospitals and government have been at pains to address.
Non-bathroom lactation rooms are such a paltry substitute for maternity leave, you might think that the craze for pumps-especially pressing them on poor women while giving tax breaks to big businesses-would be met with skepticism in some quarters. Not so. The National Organization for Women wants more pumps at work: NOW’s president, Kim Gandy, complains that “only one-third of mega-corporations provide a safe and private location for women to pump breast milk for their babies.” (When did “women’s rights” turn into “the right to work”?)
” (When did “women’s rights” turn into “the right to work”?) The stark difference between employer-sponsored lactation programs and flesh-and-blood family life is difficult to overstate. Pumps put milk into bottles, even though many of breast-feeding’s benefits to the baby, and all of its social and emotional benefits, come not from the liquid itself but from the smiling and cuddling (stuff that people who aren’t breast-feeding can give babies, too). Breast-feeding involves cradling your baby; pumping involves cupping plastic shields on your breasts and watching your nipples squirt milk down a tube. But this truth isn’t just rarely overstated; it’s rarely stated at all…No one seems especially worried about women whose risk assessment looks like this: “Should I take three twenty-minute pumping ‘breaks’ during my workday, or use formula and get home to my baby an hour earlier?
Only 44 percent of American mothers attempt to breastfeed at all.
Only 15 percent of American mothers breastfeed their children for the first six months of their lives.
Fewer than 25 percent of American mothers continues to breastfeed past one year of age.
These movements in the West towards earlier weaning, however, are recent. Breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old was at one time a very common practice worldwide. Dr. Martin Stein wrote in Parental Concerns about Extended Breastfeeding in a Toddler that “The discussion about extended nursing is similar to that of co-sleeping. They are both characteristics of child rearing that are closely linked to time and place. In most cultures before the 20th century, both practices were the norm. Changes in social, economic, and sexual expectations altered our views of the meaning of breastfeeding and bed sharing.” Extended breastfeeding was encouraged in Ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Muslim cultures. The Koran, the Talmud, and the writings of Aristotle all recommend breastfeeding for 2 to 3 years. In Breastfeeding Beyond 6 Months: Mothers’ Perceptions of the Negative and Positive Consequences, Dr. S. B. Reamer states that “Over the past 100 years of American history, the acceptance of unrestricted nursing decreased and the age acceptable for weaning dropped dramatically, until the average weaning age was 3 months in the 1970s.”
n a study published by the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 24% of American and Canadian mothers nursing past 6 months felt social hostility towards them. This number grew to 42% when mothers were nursing after 1 year of age. Also, 10% of mothers claimed embarrassment when more mobile, verbal toddlers made known in public the fact that they were nursed.
In the United States, breastfeeding beyond 1 year of age is considered ‘extended breastfeeding, and in contrast to WHO recommendations, the American Academy of Pediatrics stated in 1997 that, “Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child”.
In the United States overall, 43% of babies are breastfed until 6 months and 22.4% are breastfed until 12 months, though breastfeeding rates varied among the states.
Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. at 6 months rose from 34.2% in 2000 to 43.5% in 2006 and the rates at 12 months rose from 15.7% in 2000 to 22.7% in 2006. The U.S. Healthy People 2010 goals were to have at least 60% of babies exclusively breastfed at 3 months and 25% of babies exclusively breastfed at 6 months so this goal has yet to be met.
In the United States a study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 75 percent of mothers began breastfeeding. However, by 6 months, the rate fell to 43% and was just 22% after a year. Breastfeeding rates vary across the country, from nearly 90 percent initiating breastfeeding in Utah to 52.5 percent in Mississippi. The health care law now requires large employers to provide breastfeeding mothers with breaks and a private space to feed their babies.